Polysulfone/ Carbon Nanotubes Asymmetric Nanocomposite Membranes: Effect of Nanotubes Surface Modification on Morphology and Water Permeability

Document Type: Full article

Authors

1 School of Chemical Engineering, Iran University of Science and Technology (IUST)

2 Iran Polymer and Petrochemical Institute, Tehran, Iran

Abstract

Polysulfone/carbon nanotubes (PSF/CNTs) nanocomposite membrane was prepared via phase inversion induced by immersion precipitation technique. In addition, the surface of the CNTs were functionalized by polar carboxylic and amine groups to improve the interaction between the CNTs and the polymer matrix. For this purpose, the neat CNTs were chemically treated using sulfuric acid/ nitric acid (H2SO4/HNO3) mixture and an aromatic amine agent, i.e. 1-4-diamino benzene (DABZ), to produce the functional groups on the CNTs surface. The Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra indicated the presence of carboxylic- and amine-functional groups on the nanotubes surface. Asymmetric PSF composite membrane with various levels of the functionalized CNTs were prepared to investigate the effect of functional group type on the morphology and water flux rate of the resulting membranes. The results showed that the incorporation of the functionalized CNTs up to 0.5 wt% increased the pore size and surface roughness of the sheet membranes, while further addition decreased porosity and roughness. Higher water flux rate was observed for the amine-functionalized CNTs (af-CNTs) reinforced PSF membrane when compared with the membranes reinforced with the carboxyl-functionalized CNTs (cf-CNTs). The stronger compatibility between af-CNTs and the PSF matrix caused higher water permeability. The salt rejection performance of these microfiltration composite membranes was evaluated.

Keywords

Main Subjects


[1] Ciobanu, M. Marin, L. Cozan, V. and Bruma, M., "Aromatic polysulfones used in sensor applications", Rev. Adv. Mater. Sci., 22, 89 (2009).

[2] Medina-Gonzalez, Y. and Remigy, J., "Sonication-assisted preparation of pristine MWCNT–polysulfone conductive microporous membranes", Mater. Lett., 65, 229 (2011)

[3] Ulbricht, M., "Advanced functional polymer membranes", Polymer, 47, 2217 (2006).

[4] Kim, S. Chen, L. Johnson, J. K. and Marand, E., "Polysulfone and functionalized carbon nanotube mixed matrix membranes for gas separation: theory and experiment", J. Membrane Sci., 294, 147 (2007).

[5] Sanchez, S. Pumera, M. and Fabregas, E., "Carbon nanotube/polysulfone screen-printed electrochemical immunosensor", Biosens. Bioelectron., 23, 332 (2007).

[6] Favvas, E. P.  Nitodas, S. F.  Stefopoulos, A. A.   Papageorgiou, S. K.  Stefanopoulos, K. L. and Mitropoulos, A. Ch., "High purity multi-walled carbon nanotubes: preparation, characterization and performance as filler materials in co-polyimide hollow fiber membranes", Sep. Purif. Technol., 122, 262 (2014).

[7] Khalid, A. Al-Juhani, A. A. Al-Hamouz, O. Ch. Laoui, T.  Khan, Z. and Atieh, M. A., "Preparation and properties of nanocomposite polysulfone/multi-walled carbon nanotubes membranes for desalination", Desalination, 367, 134 (2015).

[8] de Lannoy, Ch.  Soyer, E. and Wiesner, M. R., "Optimizing carbon nanotube-reinforced polysulfone ultrafiltration membranes through carboxylic acid functionalization", J. Membrane Sci., 447, 395 (2013).

[9] Wang, J.  Lang, W.  Xu, H.   Zhang, X. and Guo, Y., "Improved poly(vinyl butyral) hollow fiber membranes by embedding multi-walled carbon nanotube for the ultrafiltrations of bovine serum albumin and humic acid", Chem. Eng. J., 260, 90 (2015).

[10]  Stankova, L. Fraczek-Szczypta, A.  Blazewicz, M. Filova, E. Blazewicz, S.  Lisa, V. and Bacakova, L., "Human osteoblast-like MG 63 cells on polysulfone modified with carbon nanotubes or carbon nanohorns", Carbon, 67, 578 (2014).

[11]  Herrera-Herrera, A. V. Gonzalez-Curbelo, M. Hernandez-Borges, J. and Rodriguez-Delgado, M. A., "Carbon nanotubes application in separation science", Anal. Chim. Acta, 73, 1 (2012).

 [12] Kim, S.   Fornasiero, F.  Park, H. G.  In, J. B.  Meshot, E.   Giraldo, G.  Stadermann, M.  Fireman, M.  Shan, J.  Grigoropoulos, C. P. and Bakajin, O., "Fabrication of flexible, aligned carbon nanotube/polymer composite membranes by in situ polymerization", J. Membrane Sci., 460, 91 (2014).

[13] Han, Zh. and Fina, A., "Thermal conductivity of carbon nanotubes and their polymer nanocomposite", Prog. Polym. Sci., 36, 914 (2011).

[14] Wong, K. C.  Goh, P. S. and Ismail, A. F., "Gas separation performance of thin film nanocomposite membranes incorporated with polymethyl methacrylate grafted multi-walled carbon nanotubes", Int. Biodeter. Biodegr., 102, 339 (2015).

[15] Siddiqui, N. A.  Khan, Sh. U.  Ma, P. Ch.  Li, Ch. Y. and Kim, J., "Manufacturing and characterization of carbon fibre/epoxy composite prepregs containing carbon nanotubes", Compos. Part A Appl. S., 42, 1412 (2011).

[16] Wei, F. Zhang, Q. Qian, W.  Yu, H.  Wang, Y.  Luo, G.  Xu, G. and Wang, D., "The mass production of carbon nanotubes using a nano-agglomerate fluidized bed reactor: A multiscale space–time analysis", Powder Technol., 183, 10 (2008).

[17] Siddiqui, N. A. Li, E. L. Sham, M.  Tang, B. Zh.  Gao, Sh. L.  Mader, E. and Kim, J., "Tensile strength of glass fibres with carbon nanotube–epoxy nanocomposite coating: effects of CNT morphology and dispersion state", Compos. Part A Appl. S., 41, 539 (2010).

[18] Fiedler, B. Gojny, F. H. Wichmann, M. H. G. Nolte, M. C. M. and Schulte, K., "Fundamental aspects of nano-reinforced composites", Compos. Sci. Technol., 66, 3115 (2006).

[19] Ma, P.  Siddiqu, N.  Marom, G. and Kim, J., "Dispersion and functionalization of carbon nanotubes for polymer-based nanocomposites", Compos. Part A Appl. S., 41, 1345 (2010).

[20] Das, D. and Das, P. K., "Superior activity of structurally deprived enzyme-carbon nanotube hybrids in cationic reverse micelles", Langmuir, 25, 4421 (2009).

[21]  Yurekli, K. Mitchell, C. and Krishnamoorti, R., "Small-angle neutron scattering from surfactant-assisted aqueous dispersions of carbon nanotubes", J. Am. Chem. Soc., 126, 9902 (2004).

[22] Rausch, J.  Zhuang, R. and Mader, E., "Surfactant assisted dispersion of functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes in aqueous media", Compos. Part A Appl. S., 41, 1038 (2010).

[23] Hilding, J.  Grulke, E. Zhang, Z. G. and Lockwood, F., "Dispersion of carbon nanotubes in liquids", J. Dispers. Sci. Technol., 24, 1 (2003).

 [24] Zhang, R. H.  Yang, Y. K.  Xie, X. L. and Li, R. K. Y., "Dispersion and crystallization studies of hyper-branched poly(urea-urethane)s-grafted CNTs filled polyamide-6 nanocomposites", Compos. Part A Appl. S., 41, 670 (2010).

[25] Dudchenko, A.  Rolf, J.  Russell, K. Duan, W. and Jassby, D., "Organic fouling inhibition on electrically conducting carbon nanotube–polyvinyl alcohol composite ultrafiltration membranes", J. Membrane Sci., 468, 1 (2014).

[26] Kara, S.  Arda, E.  Dolastir, F. and Pekcan, O., "Electrical and optical percolation of polystyrene latex-multiwalled carbon nanotube composite", J. Colloid Interf. Sci., 344, 395 (2010).

 [27] Chen, Sh.  Liou, R.   Lin, Y.   Lai, Ch. and Lai, J., "Preparation and characterizations of asymmetric sulfonated polysulfone membranes by wet phase inversion method", Eur. Polym. J., 45, 1293 (2009).

[28] Temtem, M. Casimiro, T. and Aguiar-Ricardo, A., "Solvent power and depressurization rate effects in the formation of polysulfone membranes with CO2-assisted phase inversion method", J. Membrane Sci., 283, 244 (2006).

[29] Tasis, D.  Tagmatarchis, N.  Bianco, A. and Prato, M., "Chemistry of carbon nanotubes", Chem. Rev., 106, 1105 (2006).

[30] Sahooa, N. G.  Rana, S.  Cho, J. W.  Li, L. and Chan, S. H., "Polymer nanocomposites based on functionalized CNTs", Prog. Polym. Sci., 35, 837 (2010).

[31]   LaeeqKhan, A. Cano-Odena, A. Gutierrez, B. Minguillón, C. and  Vankelecom, I., "Hydrogen separation  and  purification  using  polysulfone  acrylate–zeolite  mixed  matrix  membranes", J. Membrane Sci., 350, 340 (2010).

[32] Mark, J. E., Polymer Data Handbook, Oxford University Press, England, p. 480 (1999).

[33]  Amirilargani, M., Saljoughi, E., Mohammadi, T. and Moghbeli, M. R., "Effects of coagulation bath temperature and polyvinylpyrrolidone content on flat sheet asymmetric polyethersulfone membranes", Polym. Eng. Sci., 50, 885 (2010).

[34] Medina-Gonzalez, Y. and Remigy, J., "Sonication-assisted preparation of pristine MWCNT–polysulfone conductive microporous membranes", Mater. Lett., 65, 229 (2011).

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

[1] Ciobanu, M. Marin, L. Cozan, V. and Bruma, M., "Aromatic polysulfones used in sensor applications", Rev. Adv. Mater. Sci., 22, 89 (2009).

[2] Medina-Gonzalez, Y. and Remigy, J., "Sonication-assisted preparation of pristine MWCNT–polysulfone conductive microporous membranes", Mater. Lett., 65, 229 (2011)

[3] Ulbricht, M., "Advanced functional polymer membranes", Polymer, 47, 2217 (2006).

[4] Kim, S. Chen, L. Johnson, J. K. and Marand, E., "Polysulfone and functionalized carbon nanotube mixed matrix membranes for gas separation: theory and experiment", J. Membrane Sci., 294, 147 (2007).

[5] Sanchez, S. Pumera, M. and Fabregas, E., "Carbon nanotube/polysulfone screen-printed electrochemical immunosensor", Biosens. Bioelectron., 23, 332 (2007).

[6] Favvas, E. P.  Nitodas, S. F.  Stefopoulos, A. A.   Papageorgiou, S. K.  Stefanopoulos, K. L. and Mitropoulos, A. Ch., "High purity multi-walled carbon nanotubes: preparation, characterization and performance as filler materials in co-polyimide hollow fiber membranes", Sep. Purif. Technol., 122, 262 (2014).

[7] Khalid, A. Al-Juhani, A. A. Al-Hamouz, O. Ch. Laoui, T.  Khan, Z. and Atieh, M. A., "Preparation and properties of nanocomposite polysulfone/multi-walled carbon nanotubes membranes for desalination", Desalination, 367, 134 (2015).

[8] de Lannoy, Ch.  Soyer, E. and Wiesner, M. R., "Optimizing carbon nanotube-reinforced polysulfone ultrafiltration membranes through carboxylic acid functionalization", J. Membrane Sci., 447, 395 (2013).

[9] Wang, J.  Lang, W.  Xu, H.   Zhang, X. and Guo, Y., "Improved poly(vinyl butyral) hollow fiber membranes by embedding multi-walled carbon nanotube for the ultrafiltrations of bovine serum albumin and humic acid", Chem. Eng. J., 260, 90 (2015).

[10]  Stankova, L. Fraczek-Szczypta, A.  Blazewicz, M. Filova, E. Blazewicz, S.  Lisa, V. and Bacakova, L., "Human osteoblast-like MG 63 cells on polysulfone modified with carbon nanotubes or carbon nanohorns", Carbon, 67, 578 (2014).

[11]  Herrera-Herrera, A. V. Gonzalez-Curbelo, M. Hernandez-Borges, J. and Rodriguez-Delgado, M. A., "Carbon nanotubes application in separation science", Anal. Chim. Acta, 73, 1 (2012).

 [12] Kim, S.   Fornasiero, F.  Park, H. G.  In, J. B.  Meshot, E.   Giraldo, G.  Stadermann, M.  Fireman, M.  Shan, J.  Grigoropoulos, C. P. and Bakajin, O., "Fabrication of flexible, aligned carbon nanotube/polymer composite membranes by in situ polymerization", J. Membrane Sci., 460, 91 (2014).

[13] Han, Zh. and Fina, A., "Thermal conductivity of carbon nanotubes and their polymer nanocomposite", Prog. Polym. Sci., 36, 914 (2011).

[14] Wong, K. C.  Goh, P. S. and Ismail, A. F., "Gas separation performance of thin film nanocomposite membranes incorporated with polymethyl methacrylate grafted multi-walled carbon nanotubes", Int. Biodeter. Biodegr., 102, 339 (2015).

[15] Siddiqui, N. A.  Khan, Sh. U.  Ma, P. Ch.  Li, Ch. Y. and Kim, J., "Manufacturing and characterization of carbon fibre/epoxy composite prepregs containing carbon nanotubes", Compos. Part A Appl. S., 42, 1412 (2011).

[16] Wei, F. Zhang, Q. Qian, W.  Yu, H.  Wang, Y.  Luo, G.  Xu, G. and Wang, D., "The mass production of carbon nanotubes using a nano-agglomerate fluidized bed reactor: A multiscale space–time analysis", Powder Technol., 183, 10 (2008).

[17] Siddiqui, N. A. Li, E. L. Sham, M.  Tang, B. Zh.  Gao, Sh. L.  Mader, E. and Kim, J., "Tensile strength of glass fibres with carbon nanotube–epoxy nanocomposite coating: effects of CNT morphology and dispersion state", Compos. Part A Appl. S., 41, 539 (2010).

[18] Fiedler, B. Gojny, F. H. Wichmann, M. H. G. Nolte, M. C. M. and Schulte, K., "Fundamental aspects of nano-reinforced composites", Compos. Sci. Technol., 66, 3115 (2006).

[19] Ma, P.  Siddiqu, N.  Marom, G. and Kim, J., "Dispersion and functionalization of carbon nanotubes for polymer-based nanocomposites", Compos. Part A Appl. S., 41, 1345 (2010).

[20] Das, D. and Das, P. K., "Superior activity of structurally deprived enzyme-carbon nanotube hybrids in cationic reverse micelles", Langmuir, 25, 4421 (2009).

[21]  Yurekli, K. Mitchell, C. and Krishnamoorti, R., "Small-angle neutron scattering from surfactant-assisted aqueous dispersions of carbon nanotubes", J. Am. Chem. Soc., 126, 9902 (2004).

[22] Rausch, J.  Zhuang, R. and Mader, E., "Surfactant assisted dispersion of functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes in aqueous media", Compos. Part A Appl. S., 41, 1038 (2010).

[23] Hilding, J.  Grulke, E. Zhang, Z. G. and Lockwood, F., "Dispersion of carbon nanotubes in liquids", J. Dispers. Sci. Technol., 24, 1 (2003).

 [24] Zhang, R. H.  Yang, Y. K.  Xie, X. L. and Li, R. K. Y., "Dispersion and crystallization studies of hyper-branched poly(urea-urethane)s-grafted CNTs filled polyamide-6 nanocomposites", Compos. Part A Appl. S., 41, 670 (2010).

[25] Dudchenko, A.  Rolf, J.  Russell, K. Duan, W. and Jassby, D., "Organic fouling inhibition on electrically conducting carbon nanotube–polyvinyl alcohol composite ultrafiltration membranes", J. Membrane Sci., 468, 1 (2014).

[26] Kara, S.  Arda, E.  Dolastir, F. and Pekcan, O., "Electrical and optical percolation of polystyrene latex-multiwalled carbon nanotube composite", J. Colloid Interf. Sci., 344, 395 (2010).

 [27] Chen, Sh.  Liou, R.   Lin, Y.   Lai, Ch. and Lai, J., "Preparation and characterizations of asymmetric sulfonated polysulfone membranes by wet phase inversion method", Eur. Polym. J., 45, 1293 (2009).

[28] Temtem, M. Casimiro, T. and Aguiar-Ricardo, A., "Solvent power and depressurization rate effects in the formation of polysulfone membranes with CO2-assisted phase inversion method", J. Membrane Sci., 283, 244 (2006).

[29] Tasis, D.  Tagmatarchis, N.  Bianco, A. and Prato, M., "Chemistry of carbon nanotubes", Chem. Rev., 106, 1105 (2006).

[30] Sahooa, N. G.  Rana, S.  Cho, J. W.  Li, L. and Chan, S. H., "Polymer nanocomposites based on functionalized CNTs", Prog. Polym. Sci., 35, 837 (2010).

[31]   LaeeqKhan, A. Cano-Odena, A. Gutierrez, B. Minguillón, C. and  Vankelecom, I., "Hydrogen separation  and  purification  using  polysulfone  acrylate–zeolite  mixed  matrix  membranes", J. Membrane Sci., 350, 340 (2010).

[32] Mark, J. E., Polymer Data Handbook, Oxford University Press, England, p. 480 (1999).

[33]  Amirilargani, M., Saljoughi, E., Mohammadi, T. and Moghbeli, M. R., "Effects of coagulation bath temperature and polyvinylpyrrolidone content on flat sheet asymmetric polyethersulfone membranes", Polym. Eng. Sci., 50, 885 (2010).

[34] Medina-Gonzalez, Y. and Remigy, J., "Sonication-assisted preparation of pristine MWCNT–polysulfone conductive microporous membranes", Mater. Lett., 65, 229 (2011).

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

[1] Ciobanu, M. Marin, L. Cozan, V. and Bruma, M., "Aromatic polysulfones used in sensor applications", Rev. Adv. Mater. Sci., 22, 89 (2009).

[2] Medina-Gonzalez, Y. and Remigy, J., "Sonication-assisted preparation of pristine MWCNT–polysulfone conductive microporous membranes", Mater. Lett., 65, 229 (2011)

[3] Ulbricht, M., "Advanced functional polymer membranes", Polymer, 47, 2217 (2006).

[4] Kim, S. Chen, L. Johnson, J. K. and Marand, E., "Polysulfone and functionalized carbon nanotube mixed matrix membranes for gas separation: theory and experiment", J. Membrane Sci., 294, 147 (2007).

[5] Sanchez, S. Pumera, M. and Fabregas, E., "Carbon nanotube/polysulfone screen-printed electrochemical immunosensor", Biosens. Bioelectron., 23, 332 (2007).

[6] Favvas, E. P.  Nitodas, S. F.  Stefopoulos, A. A.   Papageorgiou, S. K.  Stefanopoulos, K. L. and Mitropoulos, A. Ch., "High purity multi-walled carbon nanotubes: preparation, characterization and performance as filler materials in co-polyimide hollow fiber membranes", Sep. Purif. Technol., 122, 262 (2014).

[7] Khalid, A. Al-Juhani, A. A. Al-Hamouz, O. Ch. Laoui, T.  Khan, Z. and Atieh, M. A., "Preparation and properties of nanocomposite polysulfone/multi-walled carbon nanotubes membranes for desalination", Desalination, 367, 134 (2015).

[8] de Lannoy, Ch.  Soyer, E. and Wiesner, M. R., "Optimizing carbon nanotube-reinforced polysulfone ultrafiltration membranes through carboxylic acid functionalization", J. Membrane Sci., 447, 395 (2013).

[9] Wang, J.  Lang, W.  Xu, H.   Zhang, X. and Guo, Y., "Improved poly(vinyl butyral) hollow fiber membranes by embedding multi-walled carbon nanotube for the ultrafiltrations of bovine serum albumin and humic acid", Chem. Eng. J., 260, 90 (2015).

[10]  Stankova, L. Fraczek-Szczypta, A.  Blazewicz, M. Filova, E. Blazewicz, S.  Lisa, V. and Bacakova, L., "Human osteoblast-like MG 63 cells on polysulfone modified with carbon nanotubes or carbon nanohorns", Carbon, 67, 578 (2014).

[11]  Herrera-Herrera, A. V. Gonzalez-Curbelo, M. Hernandez-Borges, J. and Rodriguez-Delgado, M. A., "Carbon nanotubes application in separation science", Anal. Chim. Acta, 73, 1 (2012).

 [12] Kim, S.   Fornasiero, F.  Park, H. G.  In, J. B.  Meshot, E.   Giraldo, G.  Stadermann, M.  Fireman, M.  Shan, J.  Grigoropoulos, C. P. and Bakajin, O., "Fabrication of flexible, aligned carbon nanotube/polymer composite membranes by in situ polymerization", J. Membrane Sci., 460, 91 (2014).

[13] Han, Zh. and Fina, A., "Thermal conductivity of carbon nanotubes and their polymer nanocomposite", Prog. Polym. Sci., 36, 914 (2011).

[14] Wong, K. C.  Goh, P. S. and Ismail, A. F., "Gas separation performance of thin film nanocomposite membranes incorporated with polymethyl methacrylate grafted multi-walled carbon nanotubes", Int. Biodeter. Biodegr., 102, 339 (2015).

[15] Siddiqui, N. A.  Khan, Sh. U.  Ma, P. Ch.  Li, Ch. Y. and Kim, J., "Manufacturing and characterization of carbon fibre/epoxy composite prepregs containing carbon nanotubes", Compos. Part A Appl. S., 42, 1412 (2011).

[16] Wei, F. Zhang, Q. Qian, W.  Yu, H.  Wang, Y.  Luo, G.  Xu, G. and Wang, D., "The mass production of carbon nanotubes using a nano-agglomerate fluidized bed reactor: A multiscale space–time analysis", Powder Technol., 183, 10 (2008).

[17] Siddiqui, N. A. Li, E. L. Sham, M.  Tang, B. Zh.  Gao, Sh. L.  Mader, E. and Kim, J., "Tensile strength of glass fibres with carbon nanotube–epoxy nanocomposite coating: effects of CNT morphology and dispersion state", Compos. Part A Appl. S., 41, 539 (2010).

[18] Fiedler, B. Gojny, F. H. Wichmann, M. H. G. Nolte, M. C. M. and Schulte, K., "Fundamental aspects of nano-reinforced composites", Compos. Sci. Technol., 66, 3115 (2006).

[19] Ma, P.  Siddiqu, N.  Marom, G. and Kim, J., "Dispersion and functionalization of carbon nanotubes for polymer-based nanocomposites", Compos. Part A Appl. S., 41, 1345 (2010).

[20] Das, D. and Das, P. K., "Superior activity of structurally deprived enzyme-carbon nanotube hybrids in cationic reverse micelles", Langmuir, 25, 4421 (2009).

[21]  Yurekli, K. Mitchell, C. and Krishnamoorti, R., "Small-angle neutron scattering from surfactant-assisted aqueous dispersions of carbon nanotubes", J. Am. Chem. Soc., 126, 9902 (2004).

[22] Rausch, J.  Zhuang, R. and Mader, E., "Surfactant assisted dispersion of functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes in aqueous media", Compos. Part A Appl. S., 41, 1038 (2010).

[23] Hilding, J.  Grulke, E. Zhang, Z. G. and Lockwood, F., "Dispersion of carbon nanotubes in liquids", J. Dispers. Sci. Technol., 24, 1 (2003).

 [24] Zhang, R. H.  Yang, Y. K.  Xie, X. L. and Li, R. K. Y., "Dispersion and crystallization studies of hyper-branched poly(urea-urethane)s-grafted CNTs filled polyamide-6 nanocomposites", Compos. Part A Appl. S., 41, 670 (2010).

[25] Dudchenko, A.  Rolf, J.  Russell, K. Duan, W. and Jassby, D., "Organic fouling inhibition on electrically conducting carbon nanotube–polyvinyl alcohol composite ultrafiltration membranes", J. Membrane Sci., 468, 1 (2014).

[26] Kara, S.  Arda, E.  Dolastir, F. and Pekcan, O., "Electrical and optical percolation of polystyrene latex-multiwalled carbon nanotube composite", J. Colloid Interf. Sci., 344, 395 (2010).

 [27] Chen, Sh.  Liou, R.   Lin, Y.   Lai, Ch. and Lai, J., "Preparation and characterizations of asymmetric sulfonated polysulfone membranes by wet phase inversion method", Eur. Polym. J., 45, 1293 (2009).

[28] Temtem, M. Casimiro, T. and Aguiar-Ricardo, A., "Solvent power and depressurization rate effects in the formation of polysulfone membranes with CO2-assisted phase inversion method", J. Membrane Sci., 283, 244 (2006).

[29] Tasis, D.  Tagmatarchis, N.  Bianco, A. and Prato, M., "Chemistry of carbon nanotubes", Chem. Rev., 106, 1105 (2006).

[30] Sahooa, N. G.  Rana, S.  Cho, J. W.  Li, L. and Chan, S. H., "Polymer nanocomposites based on functionalized CNTs", Prog. Polym. Sci., 35, 837 (2010).

[31]   LaeeqKhan, A. Cano-Odena, A. Gutierrez, B. Minguillón, C. and  Vankelecom, I., "Hydrogen separation  and  purification  using  polysulfone  acrylate–zeolite  mixed  matrix  membranes", J. Membrane Sci., 350, 340 (2010).

[32] Mark, J. E., Polymer Data Handbook, Oxford University Press, England, p. 480 (1999).

[33]  Amirilargani, M., Saljoughi, E., Mohammadi, T. and Moghbeli, M. R., "Effects of coagulation bath temperature and polyvinylpyrrolidone content on flat sheet asymmetric polyethersulfone membranes", Polym. Eng. Sci., 50, 885 (2010).

[34] Medina-Gonzalez, Y. and Remigy, J., "Sonication-assisted preparation of pristine MWCNT–polysulfone conductive microporous membranes", Mater. Lett., 65, 229 (2011).