Synthesis of a high characteristics activated carbon from walnut shell for the removal of Cr (VI) and Fe (II) from aqueous solution: single and binary solutes adsorption

Document Type: Full article

Authors

1 1Department of Chemical Engineering, Babol University of Technology, Shariati Street, Babol, Iran

2 2Department of Environmental Science, Faculty of Natural Resource & Marine Science, Tarbiat Modares University, Noor, Iran

3 Department of Chemical Engineering, Babol University of Technology, Shariati Street, Babol, Iran

Abstract

A high performance activated carbon was synthesized using walnut shell as a solid waste through a two-step zinc chloride chemical activation-thermal pyrolysis process. Characterization results demonstrated its porous structure with very good textural properties such as high BET surface area (1223 m2/g) and high total pore volume (0.85 cm3/g). The final adsorbent was used for adsorption of Fe (II) and Cr (VI) from aqueous solution. Effect ofpH, initial concentration of metal ions, temperature, and contact time on adsorption capacity of the adsorbent was investigated. Adsorption results revealed that the maximum removal of Fe (II) and Cr (VI) ions, occurred at pH 4. 5 and 2 respectively, were 96.2% and 99% at 313K. The equilibrium and kinetics data for adsorption of single-component ions were well described by the Sips isotherm and the pseudo-nth-order models, respectively. The impact of competing ions was studied by adsorption of a binary solution of Fe (II) and Cr (VI) ions. The binary adsorption isotherm was described by the modified Langmuir model and model parameters were found following an optimization procedure by genetic algorithm. Finally, the developed walnut-shell based activated carbon showed higher adsorption efficiency compared to other activated carbons at similar conditions.

Keywords


[1] U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, The National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute, How Are Stents Used? http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/health topics/topics/ stents/used.html.

[2] Balakrishnan, B. Tzafriri, A. R. Seifert, P. Groothuis, A. Rogers, C. and Edelman, E. R., "Strut position, blood flow, and drug deposition-implications for single and overlapping drug-eluting stents", Circulation, 111 (22), 2958 (2005).

[3] LaDisa, J. F., "Stent design properties and deployment ratio influence indexes of wall shear stress: a three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics investigation within a normal artery", J. Appl Physiol., 97 (1), 424 (2004).

[4] Seo, T. Schachter, L. G. and Barakat, A. I., "Computational study of fluid mechanical disturbance induced by endovascular stents", Ann. Biomed Eng., 33 (4), 444 (2005).

[5] Hara, H. Nakamura, M. Palmaz, J. C. and Schwartz, R. S., "Role of stent design and coatings on restenosis and thrombosis", Adv. Drug Deliv. Rev., 58 (3), 377 (2006).

[6] McGinty, S. McKee, S. Wadsworth, R. M. and McCormick, C., "Modelling drug-eluting stents", Math. Med. Biol., 28, 1 (2011).

[7] Pontrelli, G. and De Monte, F., "Mass diffusion through two-layer porous media: an application to the drug-eluting stent", Int. J. Heat and Mass Trans., 50, 3658 (2007).

[8] Pontrelli, G. Mascio, A. D. and De Monte, F., "Local mass non-equilibrium dynamics in multi-layered porous media: application to the drug-eluting stent", Int. J. Heat and Mass Trans., 66 (1), 844 (2013).

[9] Zunino, P., "Multidimensional pharmacokinetic models applied to the design of drug-eluting stents", Cardiovascular Eng., 4 (2), 181 (2004).

[10] Hossainy, S. and Prabhu, S., "A mathematical model for predicting drug release from a biodurable drug-eluting stent coating", J. Biomed. Mater. Res., 87A, 487 (2008).

[11] Siepmann, J. and Siepmann, F., "Modelling of diffusion controlled drug delivery", J. Control. Release, 161, 351 (2012).

[12] McGinty, S. McKee, S. McCormick, C. and Wheel, M., "Release mechanism and parameter estimation in drug-eluting stent systems: analytical solutions of drug release and tissue transport", Math. Med. Biol., 1-24 (2014).

[13] Fredenberg, S. Reslow, M. W. M. and Axelsson, A., "The mechanisms of drug release in poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid)-based drug delivery systems-a review", Int. J. Pharm., 415, 34 (2011).

[14] Prabhu, S. and Hossainy, S., "Modeling of degradation and drug release from a biodegradable stent coating", J. Biomed. Mater. Res., 80A (3), 732 (2007).

[15] Siepmann, J. and Gopferich, A., "Mathematical modeling of bioerodible, polymeric drug delivery systems", Adv. Drug Deliv. Rev., 48 (2-3), 229 (2001).

[16] Joshi, A. and Himmelstein, K. J., "Dynamics of controlled release from bioerodible matrices", J. Membrane Sci., 15, 95 (1991).

[17] Lee, P. I., "Diffusional release of a solute from a polymeric matrix approximate analytical solution", J. Membrane Sci., 7, 255 (1980).

[18] Rossi, F. Casalini, T. Masi, E. R. M. and Perale, G., "Bioresorbable polymer coated drug eluting stent: a model study", Mol. Pharmacol., 9 (7), 1898 (2012).

[19] Rothstein, S. N. Federspiel, W. J. and Little, S. R., "A unified mathematical model for the prediction of controlled release from surface and bulk eroding polymer matrices", Biomaterials, 30 (8), 1657 (2009).

[20] Soares, J. S. and Zunino, P., "A mixture model for water uptake, degradation, erosion and drug release from polydisperse polymeric networks", Biomaterials, 31 (11), 3032 (2010).

[21] Siepmann, J. and Gopferich, A., "Mathematical modeling of bioerodible, polymeric drug delivery systems", Adv. Drug Deliv. Rev., 48 (2-3), 229 (2001).

[22] Horner, M. Joshi, S. Dhruva, V. Sett, S. and Stewart, S. F. C., "A two-species drug delivery model is required to predict deposition from drug-eluting stents", Cardiovasc. Eng. Technol., 1 (3), 225 (2010).

[23] Abraham, J. P. Gorman, J. M. Sparrow, E. M. Stark, J. R. and Kohler, R. E., "A mass transfer model of temporal drug deposition in artery walls", Int. J. Heat Mass Trans., 58, 632 (2013).

[24] Pontrelli, G. and De Monte, F., "Modeling of mass dynamics in arterial drug-eluting stents", J. Porous Media, 12 (1), 19 (2009).

[25] Pontrelli, G. and De Monte, F., "A multi-layer porous wall model for coronary drug-eluting stents", Int. J Heat Mass Transfer., 53 (19-20), 3629 (2010).

[26] McGinty, S., "A decade of modelling drug release from arterial stents", Mathematical Biosciences, 257, 80 (2014).

[27] Sakharov, D. V. Kalachev, L. V. and Rijken, D. C., "Numerical simulation of local pharmacokinetics of a drug after intravascular delivery with an eluting stent", J. Drug Target., 10, 507 (2002).

[28] Tzafriri, A. R. Levin, A. D. and Edelman, E. R., "Diffusion-limited binding explains binary dose response for local arterial and tumor drug delivery", Cell Proliferation, 42 (3), 348 (2009).

[29] Tzafriri, A. R. Groothuis, A., Price, G. S. and Edelman, E. R., "Stent elution rate determines drug deposition and receptor-mediated effects", J. Control Release, 161 (3), 918 (2012).

[30] Bozsak, F. Chomaz, J. and Barakat, A. I., "Modeling transport of drugs eluted from stents: physical phenomena driving drug distribution in the arterial wall", Biomech Model Mechanobiol, 13 (2), 327 (2014).

[31] Kuypers, D. R. J., "Benefit-risk assessment of Sirolimus in renal transplantation", Drug Saf., 28 (2), 153 (2005).

[32] Rapamune® prescribing information. Wyeth Pharmaceuticals Inc., December 2005.

[33] A. C. Hindmarsh, suite of nonlinear and differential/algebraic equation solvers, Brown PN SUNDIALS (2005).

[34] Constantinides, A. and Mostoufi, N., "Numerical Methods for Chemical Engineers with Matlab Applications", Prentice Hall: Upper Saddle River, NJ, 1999.

[35] Bae, H. Mrsny, R. J. and Park, K., "Cancer Targeted Drug Delivery: An Elusive Dream", springer, 593 (2013).