n this paper, a mathematical model has been derived to predict the granulation time of anaerobic sludge in UASB reactors. In the proposed model, some physical, chemical and biological parameters affecting the granulation phenomena have been considered. To validate the model, 12 pilot-scale experiments in 4 UASB reactors are carried out and the results are discussed here. The reactors are started up at different environmental conditions and the granulation time in each experiment is determined. The results show that the model is able to explain different mechanisms involved in the granulation process.