Document Type : Full article


1 Catalyst Research Center, Chemical Engineering Department., Razi University, Kermanshah, Iran

2 Social Development and Health Promotion Research Center, Public Health School, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah Iran


Pharmaceutical pollutants are one of the most important issues of modern life and their negative effects on the environment and human health are undeniable. In the present work, the effectiveness of the photocatalytic process was studied by two semiconductors (ZnO and V2O5) in order to remove the Diclofenac Sodium completely under solar irradiation. The study examined the impact of parameters such as the high-level range concentration of pharmaceutical, catalyst dosage, pH changes and time on the photodegradation of Diclofenac Sodium in aqueous solution. All the experiments were carried out under solar and UV irradiation to compare between the two circumstances. The optimum conditions obtained for photodegradation of Diclofenac Sodium were: reaction time 180 min, zinc oxide and vanadium pentoxide = 1 g L-1, Diclofenac Sodium concentration = 300 mg L-1 and pH = 4. In addition, chemical oxygen demand removal was investigated for all the conditions and total degradation was observed by V2O5 under optimum conditions. The study of reaction kinetics was carried out at optimum conditions and approximately a pseudo-first order kinetic model was in agreement with experimental results in each case.


Main Subjects

[1]      Radosavljević, K. D., Lović, J. D., Mijin, D. Ž., Petrović, S. D., Jadranin, M. B., Mladenović, A. R. and Ivić, M. L. A., “Degradation of azithromycin using Ti/RuO2 anode as catalyst followed by DPV, HPLC–UV and MS analysis”, Chemical Papers, 1 (2017).

[2]      Walter, M. V. and Vennes, J. W., “Occurrence of multiple-antibiotic-resistant enteric bacteria in domestic sewage and oxidation lagoons”, Applied and Environmental Microbiology50 (4), 930 (1985).

[3]      Boxall, A. B., Kolpin, D. W., Halling-Sørensen, B. and Tolls, J., Peer reviewed: Are veterinary medicines causing environmental risks?, ACS Publications, (2003).

[4]      Bort, R., Ponsoda, X., Jover, R., Gómez-Lechón, M. J. and Castell, J. V., “Diclofenac toxicity to hepatocytes: A role for drug metabolism in cell toxicity”, Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics288 (1), 65 (1999).

[5]      Artmann, J., Bartels, P., Mau, U., Witter, M., Tumpling, W. V., Hofmann, J. and Nietzschmann, E., “Degradation of the drug diclofenac in water by sonolysis in presence of catalysts”, Chemosphere70 (3), 453 (2008).

[6]      Oaks, J. L., Gilbert, M., Virani, M. Z. and Watson, R. T., “Diclofenac residues as the cause of vulture population decline in Pakistan”, Nature427 (6975), 630 (2004).

[7]      Taggart, M., Senacha, K., Green, R., Jhala, Y., Raghavan, B., Rahmani, A., Cuthbert, R., Pain, D. and Meharg, A., “Diclofenac residues in carcasses of domestic ungulates available to vultures in India”, Environment International33 (6), 759 (2007).

[8]      Takáčová, A., Mackluľak, T., Smolinská, M., Hutňan, M. and Olejníková, P., “Influence of selected biowaste materials pre-treatment on their anaerobic digestion”, Chemical Papers66 (2), 129 (2012).

[9]      Pasquini, L., Munoz, J.-F., Rimlinger, N., Dauchy, X., France, X., Pons, M.-N. and Görner, T., “Assessment of the fate of some household micropollutants in urban wastewater treatment plant”, Chemical Papers67 (6), 601 (2013).

[10]  Nakada, N., Shinohara, H., Murata, A., Kiri, K., Managaki, S., Sato, N. and Takada, H., “Removal of selected pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) and endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) during sand filtration and ozonation at a municipal sewage treatment plant”, Water Research41 (19), 4373 (2007).

[11]  Grover, D., Zhou, J., Frickers, P. and Readman, J., “Improved removal of estrogenic and pharmaceutical compounds in sewage effluent by full scale granular activated carbon: Impact on receiving river water”, Journal of Hazardous Materials185 (2), 1005 (2011).

[12]  Xue, W., Wu, C., Xiao, K., Huang, X., Zhou, H., Tsuno, H. and Tanaka, H., “Elimination and fate of selected micro-organic pollutants in a full-scale anaerobic/anoxic/aerobic process combined with membrane bioreactor for municipal wastewater reclamation”, Water Research44 (20), 5999 (2010).

[13]  Esplugas, S., Bila, D. M., Krause, L. G. and Dezotti, M., “Ozonation and advanced oxidation technologies to remove endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) and pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) in water effluents”, J. Hazard. Mater.149 (3), 631 (2007).

[14]  Achilleos, A., Hapeshi, E., Xekoukoulotakis, N. P., Mantzavinos, D. and Fatta-Kassinos, D., “Factors affecting diclofenac decomposition in water by UV-A/TiO2 photocatalysis”, Chemical Engineering Journal161 (1-2), 53 (2010).

[15]  Röhricht, M., Krisam, J., Weise, U., Kraus, U. R. and Düring, R.-A., “Elimination of pharmaceuticals from wastewater by submerged nanofiltration plate modules”, Desalination250 (3), 1025 (2010).

[16]  Deegan, A., Shaik, B., Nolan, K., Urell, K., Oelgemöller, M., Tobin, J. and Morrissey, A., “Treatment options for wastewater effluents from pharmaceutical companies”, International Journal of Environmental Science & Technology8 (3), 649 (2011).

[17]  Bagal, M. V. and Gogate, P. R., “Degradation of diclofenac sodium using combined processes based on hydrodynamic cavitation and heterogeneous photocatalysis”, Ultrasonics Sonochemistry21 (3), 1035 (2014).

[18]  Madhavan, J., Kumar, P. S. S., Anandan, S., Zhou, M., Grieser, F. and Ashokkumar, M., “Ultrasound assisted photocatalytic degradation of diclofenac in an aqueous environment”, Chemosphere80 (7), 747 (2010).

[19]  Rizzo, L., Meric, S., Kassinos, D., Guida, M., Russo, F. and Belgiorno, V., “Degradation of diclofenac by TiO2 photocatalysis: UV absorbance kinetics and process evaluation through a set of toxicity bioassays”, Water Research43 (4), 979 (2009).

[20]  Naddeo, V., Belgiorno, V., Kassinos, D., Mantzavinos, D. and Meric, S., “Ultrasonic degradation, mineralization and detoxification of diclofenac in water: Optimization of operating parameters”, Ultrasonics Sonochemistry17 (1), 179 (2010).

[21]  Mendez-Arriaga, F., Esplugas, S. and Gimenez, J., “Photocatalytic degradation of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs with TiO2 and simulated solar irradiation”, Water Res.42 (3), 585 (2008).

[22]  Pérez-Estrada, L., Maldonado, M., Gernjak, W., Agüera, A., Fernández-Alba, A., Ballesteros, M. and Malato, S., “Decomposition of diclofenac by solar driven photocatalysis at pilot plant scale”, Catalysis Today101 (3), 219 (2005).

[23]  Federation, W. E. and Association, A. P. H., Standard methods for the examination of water and wastewater,American Public Health Association (APHA), Washington D.C., USA,  (2005).

[24]  Shavisi, Y., Sharifnia, S., Zendehzaban, M., Mirghavami, M. L. and Kakehazar, S., “Application of solar light for degradation of ammonia in petrochemical wastewater by a floating TiO2/LECA photocatalyst”, Journal of Industrial and Engineering Chemistry20 (5), 2806 (2014).

[25]  Muthukumaran, S. and Gopalakrishnan, R., “Structural, FTIR and photoluminescence studies of Cu doped ZnO nanopowders by co-precipitation method”, Optical Materials34 (11), 1946 (2012).

[26]  Wei, Y., Ryu, C.-W. and Kim, K.-B., “Improvement in electrochemical performance of V2O5 by Cu doping”, Journal of Power Sources165 (1), 386 (2007).

[27]  Byrappa, K., Dayananda, A., Sajan, C., Basavalingu, B., Shayan, M., Soga, K. and Yoshimura, M., “Hydrothermal preparation of ZnO: CNT and TiO2: CNT composites and their photocatalytic applications”, Journal of Materials Science43 (7), 2348 (2008).

[28]  Liu, Y., Lu, Y., Liu, S. and Yin, Y., “The effects of microwaves on the catalyst preparation and the oxidation of o-xylene over a V2O5/SiO2 system”, Catal. Today, 51 (1), 147 (1999).

[29]  Samaha, M., Merabet, S., Bouguerra, M., Bouhelassa, M., Ouhenia, S. and Bouzaza, A., “Photo-oxidation process of indole in aqueous solution with ZnO catalyst: Study and optimization”, Kinet. Catal., 52 (1), 34 (2011).

[30]  Richard, C., Boule, P. and Aubry, J. M., “Oxidizing species involved in photocatalytic transformations on zinc oxide”, J. Photochem. Photobiol., A: Chem., 60, 235 (1991).

[31]  Pelizzetti, E. and Serpone, N., (Eds.), Homogeneous and Heterogeneous Photocatalysis, Reidel, Dordrecht, (1988).