Document Type : Regular Article
1 Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Qom, P.O. Box: 37161-46611, Qom, Iran
2 Department of Agricultural Engineering, TarbiatModares University, P.O. Box: 14155-111, Tehran, Iran
A batch process was developed for the production of biodiesel from high free fatty acid feedstocks. The mixed-integer nonlinear programming (MINLP) problem, caused due to applying the hierarchical procedure together with Malone’s algorithm for the conceptual design, was solved. Meanwhile, the optimum states of major process parameters such as the utilization of the process equipment, paralleling, splitting, and the merging of unit operations, the process cycle time (CT), and the combination of batch and continuous units were determined. Based on the present optimization study, the optimum value of the process cycle time and the optimum number of the esterification reactors in series were obtained as 3.257 h/batch and 3 stages respectively. The batch process was found to be suitable for a capacity of less than 260 tons/yr, while the continuous process was suitable for a capacity of greater production rates. The results showed that the production rate had a direct effect on the economic potential of the process and that it should be set at its maximum possible practical value. Also, the break-even point for the optimum state occurred at the production rate of 130 tons/yr.
- Takumi, I. and Torii, Sh., “Characteristics of stable biodiesel emulsion fuel with the aid of lipophilic surfactant, polyglycerol polyricinoleate (PGPR)”, International Journal of Green Energy, 17 (14), 946 (2020).
- Morris, R. E., Pollack, A. K., Mansell, G. E. and Lindhjem, Y. J., “Impact of biodiesel fuels on air quality and human health”, National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Annual Report, Report number: NREL/SR-540-33798, (2003).
- Rafael, L. and Juan, A. M., Advances in biodiesel production processes and technologies, 1st, Woodhead Publishing Limited, Cambridge, UK, p. 74 (2012).
- Sahu, G., Das, L. M., Sharma, B. K. and Naik, S. N., “Pilot plant study on biodiesel production from karanja and jatropha oils”, Asia-Pac. J. Chem. Eng., 6 (1), 38 (2011).
- Suthar, K., Dwivedi, A. and Joshipura M., “A review on separation and purification techniques for biodiesel production with special emphasis on jatropha oil as a feedstock”, Asia-Pac J. Chem. Eng., 14 (5), e2361 (2019).
- Basha, S. A., Gopal, K. R. and Jebaraj, S., “A review on biodiesel production, combustion, emissions and performance”, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 13 (6), 1628 (2009).
- Takase, M. and Essandoh, P. K., “Two-step biodiesel production using high free fatty acid containing pig fat”, International Journal of Green Energy, 18 (4), 381 (2021).
- Kavitha, M. S. and Murugavelh, S., “In situ acid catalyzed transesterification of biodiesel production from sterculiafoetida oil and seed”, International Journal of Green Energy, 16 (15), 1465 (2019).
- Demirbuş, A., “Biodiesel fuel from vegetable oils via catalytic and non-catalytic supercritical alcohol transesterification and other methods: A survey”, Energy Conversion and Management, 44 (13), 2093 (2003).
- Khan, N., Maseet, M. and Basir, S. F., “Synthesis and characterization of biodiesel from waste cooking oil by lipase immobilized on genipin cross-linked chitosan beads: A green approach”, International Journal of Green Energy, 17 (1), 84 (2020).
- Zhang, Y., Dube, M. A., McLean, D. D. and Kates, M., “Biodiesel production from waste cooking oil: 2. Economic assessment and sensitivity analysis”, Technol., 90 (3), 229 (2003a).
- Gerpen, J. V., Shanks, B. and Pruszko, R., “Biodiesel production technology”, National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Annual Report, Report number: NREL/SR-510-36244, (2004).
- Lin, L., Ying, D., Chaitep, S. and Vittayapadung, S., “Biodiesel production from crude rice bran oil and properties as fuel”, Applied Energy, 86 (5), 681 (2009).
- Canakci, M. and Gerpen, J. V., “A pilot plant to produce biodiesel from high free fatty acid feedstocks”, Transactions of the ASAE, 46 (4), 945 (2003).
- Zhang, Y., Dubé, M. A., McLean, D. D. and Kates, M., “Biodiesel production from waste cooking oil: 1. Process design and technological assessment”, Technol., 89 (1), 1 (2003b).
- Douglas, J. M., Conceptual design of chemical processes, 1st, McGraw-Hill Book Co., Singapore, p. 568 (1988).
- Fair, J. R., “Book review: conceptual design of distillation systems”, AIChE Journal, 49 (9), 2452 (2003).
- Sharrat, P. N., Handbook of batch process design, 1st, Blackie Academic and Professional, London, UK, p. 26 (1997).
- Hoyle, W., Pilot plant and scale up of chemical processes, 1st, The Royal Society of Chemistry Press, Cambridge, UK, p. 15 (1997).
- Balchen, J. G., Dynamics and control of chemical reactors, distillation columns and batch processes, Selected Papers from the 3rd IFAC Symposium, 1st, Pergamon Press, New York, USA, p. 45 (1993).
- Malone, M. F. and Iribarren, O., “A systematic procedure for batch process synthesis”, 78th AICHE Annual Meeting, Chicago, USA (1985).
- Mohammadi, A. and Ghobadian, B., “Techno-economic optimization of a continuous process for biodiesel production from waste vegetable oils”, Iranian Journal of Chemical Engineering (IJChE), 18 (4), 21 (2022).
- Fangrui, M. and Hanna, M. A., “Biodiesel production: a review”, Technol., 70 (1), 1 (1999).
- Sendzikiene, E., Makareviciene, V., Janulis, P. and Kitrys, S., “Kinetics of free fatty acids esterification with methanol in the production of biodiesel fuel”, J. Lipid Sci. Technol., 106 (12), 831 (2004).
- Smith, R., Chemical process design and integration, 1st, John Wiley & Sons, Barcelona, Spain, p. 9 (2005).
- Mujtaba, I. M., Batch distillation design and operation, 1st, Imperial College Press, London, UK, p. 25 (2004).
- Couper, W., Penney, R., Fair, J. R. and Walas, S. M., Chemical process equipment selection and design, 3rd, Elsevier Publishing, Oxford, UK, p. 111 (2012).
- Treybal, R. E., Mass transfer operations, 3rd, McGraw Hill, Singapore, p. 142 (2001).
- Tesser, R., Serio, M. D. and Natasi, M., “Kinetics of oleic acid esterification with methanol in the presence of triglycerides”, Eng. Chem. Res., 44 (21), 7978 (2005).
- Noureddini, H. and Zhu, D., “Kinetics of transesterification of soybean oil”, Am. Oil Chem. Soc., 74 (11), 1457 (1997).
- Levenspiel, O., Chemical reaction engineering, 3rd, John Wiley and Sons, New York, USA, p. 134 (1991).
- Takamatsu, T., Hashlmoto, I., Hasebe, S. and O'Shlma, M., “Design of a flexible batch process with intermediate storage tanks”, Eng. Chem. Process Des. Dev., 23, 40 (1984).