Document Type : Full article


1 Assistant professor @ Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz

2 technical assistant@ Shahrekord University of Applied Science, Nahangol Branch, Boroujen, Iran



The chemical interesterification (CIE) process is a promising approach to modifying and improving oils and fat structure. In this study, CIE of fully hydrogenated soybean oil (FHSO) and sunflower oil (SFO) was performed. Different initial blends with various mass ratios of 20-45% FHSO (coded as S1, S2, S3, and S4) were converted to interesterified samples (Si-1, Si-2, Si-3, and Si-4, peer-to-peer). The interesterified samples (60% content) were used in different margarine formulas with 40% palmolein PO (M1, M2, M3, M4), and margarines enriched with beta-carotene, to compensate for the reduction of carotene during the oil decolorization process during refining. Esterification caused a significant decrease in the solid fat content (SFC) of initial fat blends and fatty acid profile analysis confirmed just less than 0.17-0.3% of trans fatty acid content (According to the definition of zero trans less than 0.5 g/12 g serving). Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) measurement indicated that the interesterified samples possess lower melting points while showing binary or ternary crystallization peaks. The Polarized light microscopy (PLM) confirmed the presence of fine, desirable β´spherulite crystals, which are effective in creating the proper texture in margarine. Formulated margarines were evaluated and compared with one type of commercial margarine (as a control sample). According to the texture profile analysis (TPA) and organoleptic results, the M3 formula was chosen as the best formulation for margarine preparation (using Si-3 blending with the 35: 65 ratios of FHSO to SFO).


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