Document Type : Special issue


1 Department of Chemical engineering

2 College of Engineering

3 University of Guilan P.O. Box 41996-13776

4 1Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Guilan, P.O. Box 41996-13776, Iran.

5 Energy Division, Iran Polymer and Petrochemical Institute, P.O. Box 14965-115, Tehran, Iran



A hydrothermal method was used to synthesize different photoanodes for dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) applications. These photoanodes included WO3, TiO2, Graphene-TiO2, WO3-TiO2, and a nanostructure of Graphene-WO3-TiO2. The morphology of the nanoparticles was analyzed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV-vis), and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The results demonstrated that the graphene-WO3-TiO2 nanostructure had a large surface area, providing more active sites for efficient conversion of solar energy. Notably, the DSSC incorporating the graphene-WO3-TiO2 nanoparticles electrode outperformed cells based solely on TiO2 and WO3, achieving a higher short-circuit current density of 7.5, an open-circuit voltage of 0.68 V, a fill factor of 0.46, and a power conversion efficiency of 2.4%. In contrast, the pure TiO2 and WO3 cells only achieved an efficiency of 0.88% and 0.69%, Respectively. The excellent electron mobility of the ternary nanostructure facilitated charge trapping and injection into the conductive substrate, reducing recombination. Additionally, the scattering effect of the WO3 nanorods and graphene enhanced light harvesting in the photoanode, leading to an increase in overall solar cell efficiency. These findings highlight the potential of the synthesized graphene-WO3-TiO2 nanostructure as a promising photoanode material for DSSC applications.


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