Document Type : Full article


CFD Research center, Chemical Engineering Department, Razi University, Kermanshah, Iran


"> In the present study, transesterification of soybean oil to Fatty Acid Methyl Ester (FAME) was carried out in the microreactor. The system performance was investigated in the presence of hexane as a cosolvent. Furthermore, the effect of number of micromixer’s inlets on the mixing was one of the objectives in this work. For the goals mentioned above, three different experiments were done with and without cosolvent in two and three inlet micromixers under optimum conditions. Both flow pattern observations and Gas Chromatgoraphy (GC) characterization of FAME samples demonstrated that cosolvent technique and micromixer application could significantly influence the FAME yield in biodiesel production.


Main Subjects

[1]        Ma, F. and Hanna, M. A., "Biodiesel production: a review", Bioresour. Technol., 70 (1), 1 (1999).
[2]        Ashraful, A. Masjuki, H. Kalam, M. Rizwanul Fattah, I. Imtenan, S. Shahir, S. and Mobarak, H., "Production and comparison of fuel properties, engine performance, and emission characteristics of biodiesel from various non-edible vegetable oils: A review", Energy Convers. Manage., 80, 202 (2014).
[3]        Ong, H. Silitonga, A. Masjuki, H. Mahlia, T. Chong, W. and Boosroh, M., "Production and comparative fuel properties of biodiesel from non-edible oils: Jatropha curcas, Sterculia foetida and Ceiba pentandra", Energy Convers. Manage., 73, 245 (2013).
[4]        Antolı́n, G. Tinaut, F. V. Briceño, Y. Castaño, V. Pérez, C. and Ramı́rez, A. I., "Optimisation of biodiesel production by sunflower oil transesterification", Bioresour. Technol., 83 (2), 111 (2002).
[5]        Mills, P. L. Quiram, D. J. and Ryley, J. F. "Microreactor technology and process miniaturization for catalytic reactions—A perspective on recent developments and emerging technologies", Chem. Eng. Sci., 62 (24), 6992 (2007).
[6]        Erhfeld, W. V. H. and Lowe, H., Microreactors: New Technology for Modern Chemistry, Wiley-VCH, Weinheim, (2005).
[7]        Renken, A. Hessel, V. Löb, P. Miszczuk, R, Uerdingen, M. and Kiwi-Minsker, L., "Ionic liquid synthesis in a microstructured reactor for process intensification", Chem. Eng. Process., 46 (9), 840 (2007).
[8]        Mason, B. P. Price, K. E. Steinbacher, J. L. Bogdan, A. R. and McQuade, D. T., "Greener approaches to organic synthesis using microreactor technology", Chem. Rev., 107 (6), 2300 (2007).
[9]        Guan, G. Kusakabe, K. Moriyama, K. and Sakurai, N., "Transesterification of sunflower oil with methanol in a microtube reactor", Ind. Eng. Chem. Res., 48 (3), 1357 (2009).
[10]      Sun, P. Wang, B. Yao, J. Zhang, L. and Xu, N., "Fast synthesis of biodiesel at high throughput in microstructured reactors", Ind. Eng. Chem. Res., 49 (3), 1259 (2009).
[11]      Boocock, D. G. Konar, S. K. Mao, V. Lee, C. and Buligan, S., "Fast formation of high-purity methyl esters from vegetable oils", J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc., 75 (12), 1167 (1998).
[12]      Escobar, E. C. Demafelis, R. B. Pham, L. J. Florece, L. M. and Borines, M. G., "Biodiesel production from Jatropha curcas L. oil by transesterification with hexane as cosolvent", Philipp. J. Crop. Sci., 33 (3), 1 (2008).
[13]      Alhassan, Y. Kumar, N. Bugaje, I. Pali, H. and Kathkar, P., "Co-solvents transesterification of cotton seed oil into biodiesel: Effects of reaction conditions on quality of fatty acids methyl esters", Energy Convers. Manage., 84, 640 (2014).
[14]      Guan, G. Sakurai, N. and Kusakabe, K., "Synthesis of biodiesel from sunflower oil at room temperature in the presence of various cosolvents", Chem. Eng. J., 146 (2), 302 (2009).
[15]      Freedman, B. Butterfield, RO. and Pryde, EH., "Transesterification kinetics of soybean oil 1", J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc., 63(10),1357 (1986).
[16]      Wang, Y. Ou, S. Liu, P. Xue, F. and Tang, S. "Comparison of two different processes to synthesize biodiesel by waste cooking oil", J. Mol. Catal. A: Chem., 252 (1), 107 (2006).
[17]      Kashid, M. N. and Kiwi-Minsker, L., "Microstructured reactors for multiphase reactions: state of the art", Ind. Eng. Chem. Res., 48 (14), 6465 (2009).
[18]      Burns, J. and Ramshaw, C., "The intensification of rapid reactions in multiphase systems using slug flow in capillaries", Lab Chip, 1 (1), 10 (2001).
[19]      Dummann, G. Quittmann, U. Gröschel, L. Agar, D. W. Wörz, O. and Morgenschweis, K., "The capillary-microreactor: a new reactor concept for the intensification of heat and mass transfer in liquid–liquid reactions", Catal. Today, 79, 433 (2003).
[20]      Kashid, M. N. Gerlach, I. Goetz, S. Franzke, J. Acker, J. Platte, F. Agar, D. and Turek, S., "Internal circulation within the liquid slugs of a liquid-liquid slug-flow capillary microreactor", Ind. Eng. Chem. Res., 44 (14), 5003 (2005).
[21]      Kashid, M. N., "Experimental and modelling studies on liquid-liquid slug flow capillary microreactors", Desertation of PhD, Department of Biochemical and Chemical Engineering at the University of Dortmund (2007).
[22]      Dessimoz, A. L., Cavin, L. Renken, A. and Kiwi-Minsker, L., "Liquid–liquid two-phase flow patterns and mass transfer characteristics in rectangular glass microreactors", Chem. Eng. Sci., 63 (16), 4035 (2008).